Spies Hecker Paint Defects Guide


Poor opacity
Paint defects


Definition

  • Uneven coloration.
  • Substrate visible through top coat.

Cause

  • Insufficient top coat applied.
  • Incorrectly produced, uneven substrate (effect finishes).

Prevention

  • Keep to the film thicknesses specified on the Technical Data Sheets.
  • For low-opacity colors, use the specified surfacer.
  • Spray a neutral-coloured substrate.

Remedy

  • Sand the surface and respray.

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Poor opacity







Dirt inclusions

Paint defects


Definition

  • Particles projecting through the top coat.

Cause

  • Surface not carefully cleaned.
  • Faulty ceiling filters.
  • Pressure in the spray booth too low.
  • Unsuitable work clothes.
  • Dirty spray booth.

Prevention

  • Carefully blow off the surface, clean it and then wipe with a tack cloth.
  • Check filters regularly.
  • Wear lint-free overalls.
  • Maintain spray booth regularly.

Remedy

  • Sand defect lightly and polish.
  • Sand and respray large surfaces.

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Dirt inclusions







Orange peel / poor flow

Paint defects


Definition

  • Surface texture resembling orange peel.

Cause

  • Paint viscosity too high.
  • Fast, highly volatile reducers.
  • Incorrect nozzle size.
  • Spray gun too far from object; not enough paint applied.

Prevention

  • Set the right spray booth temperature.
  • Adapt the paint system to the repair job and spray booth temperature.
  • Set the right paint viscosity with a DIN viscosity cup.
  • Check and maintain spraying distance (follow spray gun manufacturer’s recommendations).

Remedy

  • On small surfaces, sanding and polishing are possible.
  • On large surfaces, sand down the texture and respray.

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Orange peel / poor flow







Holograms

Paint defects


Definition

  • 3D effect on dark paint surfaces on which a paint defect has been remedied.
  • Mostly elliptical or circular clouding; greyish iridescence like that of an oil film.

Cause

  • Remedying of defects and dust nibs on mostly dark top coats or clear coats.

Prevention

  • Use products specified by polish manufacturer.
  • Use suitable sanding materials.
  • Keep to the drying times for the paint systems employed. (Follow instructions on the Technical Data Sheets.)

Remedy

  • Treat surface again with suitable polishes.

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Holograms







Colour separation on sealant

Paint defects


Definition

  • Sealant visible through top coat.
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Cause

  • Sealant overpainted too soon.
  • Insufficient wetting of top coat on sealant.

Prevention

  • Allow enough time for sealant to dry.
  • Apply a thin initial coat of base / top coat over seals.

Remedy

  • Respray.

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Colour separation on sealant







Runs

Paint defects


Definition

  • Paint runs on vertical body parts.

Cause

  • Uneven paint application.
  • Specified spray viscosity not observed.
  • Unsuitable reducers.
  • Material or spray booth temperature too low.
  • Film thicknesses too high.
  • Faulty spray gun (nozzle).
  • Flash-off between coats too short.

Prevention

  • Comply with instructions on object, paint and spray booth temperature.
  • Check spraying equipment regularly.
  • Mix and apply paint in accordance with the instructions on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy

  • After the specified drying time, flat any runs. If necessary, use an infrared heater for further drying and then polish.
  • If the runs have been sanded right through, respray.

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Runs





Clouding or mottling in metallic finishes
Paint defects

Definition

  • Uneven color / effect.

Cause

  • Faulty spray gun (nozzle).
  • Incorrect air pressure, unsuitable reducer, unsuitable spraying technique, unsuitable spray viscosity.

Prevention

  • Use mixing stick or DIN viscosity cup to obtain spray viscosity.
  • Maintain spray guns regularly.
  • Hold spray gun parallel to object while spraying (observe correct distance). Follow the spray gun manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Follow the application recommendations on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy

  • Allow clear coat to dry thoroughly, then sand the surface and respray.

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Clouding or mottling in metallic finishes

 



Solvent popping
Paint defects

Definition

  • Small bubbles in the top coat, some of them burst.

Cause

  • Excessive film thickness.
  • Top coat not allowed to flash off long enough before forced drying.
  • Specified spray viscosity not observed.
  • Unsuitable hardener or reducer.

Prevention

  • Apply paint in normal film thicknesses.
  • Keep to specified flash-off times.
  • Follow the instructions on spray viscosity, hardeners and reducers on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy

  • Sand the affected areas lightly with a sanding pad and respray within 24 hours. Do not sand pop marks open.
  • Where there are large bubbles / pop marks, sand down the surface completely and reapply the paint system.

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Solvent popping

 



Edge mapping
Paint defects

Definition

  • Edges showing through in the top coat.

Cause

  • Old paintwork not sanded down smoothly at the edges.
  • Putty and surfacer applied on top of elastic factory finish.
  • Surfacer sanded and recoated before it had fully dried.
  • Substrate not completely dry.
  • Priming material applied in excessive film thickness and not allowed to dry properly.

Prevention

  • Carry out a solvent test on the substrate (elastic / hard).
  • Apply putty to bare metal only.
  • On elastic substrates apply surfacer to complete panels.

Remedy

  • After the top coat has fully dried, fine-sand and polish.
  • Sand, isolate with a surfacer and spray again.

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Edge mapping





Polyester bleeding
Paint defects

Definition

  • Discoloured patches in metallic finishes.

Cause

  • Too much hardener in the polyester putty.

Prevention

  • Isolate areas of putty with suitable materials.
  • If necessary, use putty dispenser.
  • Avoid using excessive hardener in the putty.

Remedy

  • If too much hardener was used in polyester putty, sand off polyester putty and repeat application using correct putty / hardener ratio.

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Polyester bleeding







Water spotting

Paint defects


Definition

  • Marks and raised edges of water droplets on fresh finishes.

Cause

  • Warm, not fully hardened top coat spotted with water droplets, usually immediately after oven drying.

Prevention

  • Observe drying time.
  • Allow object to cool after oven drying.

Remedy

  • Lightly sand and polish.
  • Sand damaged area and respray.

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Water spotting







Sanding marks

Paint defects


Definition

  • Sanding marks with swollen edges.

Cause

  • Excessively coarse sanding materials for substrate preparation.

Prevention

  • Sand putty with P 120-180 (initial sanding) and P 240-320 (final sanding).
  • Surfacer: dry P 400-500, wet P 800-1200.
  • Follow instructions for substrate preparation on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy

  • When the top coat has fully dried, fine-sand and polish the paint surface.
  • To eliminate serious damage, sand paint surface and respray.

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Sanding marks







Moisture blistering

Paint defects


Definition

  • Small raised pimples appearing in the paint film.

Cause

  • Moisture absorbed by the substrate.
  • Insufficient substrate drying after wet sanding (particularly a problem with polyester products).
  • Condensation due to temperature fluctuations.
  • Polyester products not isolated.
  • Damp compressed air.

Prevention

  • Dry-sand and isolate polyester products.
  • Ensure that the supplied compressed air is clean.

Remedy

  • Sand down the affected area completely, matt-sand the unaffected remaining surface, clean with silicone remover, apply surfacer and then respray. 

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Moisture blistering





Lifting / wrinkling
Paint defects

Definition

  • Lifting / wrinkling of the paint surface.

Cause

  • Substrate solvent-sensitive or not fully cured.
  • Areas where clear coat was sanded through to base coat either not isolated or isolated with an unsuitable surfacer.
  • Unsuitable substrate (e.g. aerosol-can finish with TPA or nitrocellulose paints).
  • Unsuitable priming materials, top coats or reducers.

Prevention

  • Carry out a solvent test on problem substrates.
  • Apply several thin coats of a 2K surfacer to problem substrates and allow longer flash-off.

Remedy

  • Completely remove the fully dried area of wrinkled top coat together with the affected substrate and apply the paint system again.
  • Before applying the top coat, lightly sand the entire area.

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Lifting / wrinkling





Pinholes
Paint defects

Definition

  • Small, pinhole-like depressions.

Cause

  • Air trapped in putty.
  • Excessive putty film thickness.
  • Incorrect spray viscosity for surfacer materials.
  • Excessive surfacer film thickness.
  • Insufficient flash-off between coats.

Prevention

  • Follow the application recommendations on the Technical Data Sheets.
  • Choose the right hardener for the temperature.
  • Observe flash-off times.

Remedy

  • Sand down pinholes, apply surfacer if necessary and reapply paint system.

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Pinholes





Matting
Paint defects

Definition

  • Loss of top coat gloss.

Cause

  • Surfacer not allowed to dry properly.
  • Unsuitable reducers or hardeners.
  • Hardener had already reacted with moisture.
  • Poor air circulation in drying oven.
  • Extraordinary climatic conditions.
  • Film thickness too high or low.

Prevention

  • Keep to the drying times and film thicknesses specified on the Technical Data Sheets.
  • Use only the recommended reducers.
  • Close hardener cans immediately after use.
  • Check air circulation in drying oven.

Remedy

  • After drying, polish the affected area to a full gloss or, alternatively, lightly sand the whole surface, clean with silicone remover and respray. 

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Matting





Salt and pepper effect
Paint defects

Definition

  • Black and white stippling / impurities in the base coat.

Cause

  • Material insufficiently filtered.
  • Incorrect storage temperature (waterborne base coat).
  • Material past end of shelf life.
  • Insufficiently stirred base coat.

Prevention

  • Use a suitable strainer.
  • Observe storage temperature (as given on the Technical Data Sheets).
  • Stir the tinters in the mixing machine regularly.

Remedy

  • Sand and respray with uncontaminated material. 

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Salt and pepper effect

 




Dirt and dust in the base coat
Paint defects

Definition

 

  • Dirt particles projecting from the base coat.

Cause

  • Base coat not filtered.
  • Incorrect cleaning of the surface (dirt from rebates, etc.).
  • Dirt from clothing (refinisher).
  • Unsuitable tack cloth / dirty spray booth and filters (ceiling, floor).

Prevention

  • Filter base coat.
  • Clean surface correctly (including rebates, etc.).
  • Wear clean overalls.
  • Use suitable tack cloth.
  • Maintain the spray booth regularly.

Remedy

  • Clean with silicone remover, tack cloth (sand if necessary) and reapply base coat. 

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Dirt and dust in the base coat

 



Dirt and dust in the clear coat
Paint defects

Definition

  • Dirt particles projecting from the clear coat.

Cause

  • Clear coat not adequately filtered.
  • Incorrect cleaning of the surface (dirt from rebates, etc.).
  • Dirt from clothing (refinisher).
  • Dirty spray booth and filters.

Prevention

  • Filter clear coat well.
  • Clean surface correctly (including rebates, etc.).
  • Wear clean overalls.
  • Maintain the spray booth regularly.

Remedy

  • Sand (P 1500) and polish.
  • If exceptionally contaminated, sand and then respray base coat and clear coat. 

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Dirt and dust in the clear coat

 




Poor adhesion
Paint defects

Definition

  • Loss of putty adhesion on bare metal (steel, zinc or aluminum).

Cause

  • Unsuitable substrate.
  • Putty overheating during IR drying.
  • Insufficient substrate preparation.

Prevention

  • Choose suitable putty for the substrate.
  • Observe distance from heater.
  • Choose correct preparation.

Remedy

  • Sand down and start again. 

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Poor adhesion

 



Adhesion problems between base coat and clear coat
Paint defects

Definition

  • Poor adhesion between base coat and clear coat.
  • Clear coat peels off.

Cause

  • Insufficient flash-off before clear coat application.
  • Base coat film too thick.

Prevention

  • Observe flash-off times (follow instructions on the Technical Data Sheets).
  • Observe film thicknesses (follow instructions on the Technical Data Sheets).

Remedy

  • Sand and respray. 

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Adhesion problems between base coat and clear coat

 



Halo effect in blending areas
Paint defects

Definition

  • Visible edge when blending in from the base coat.

Cause

  • Edge zone sprayed too dry / wet.
  • Incorrect spraying technique.
  • Spraying pressure too high.
  • Spray booth temperature too high.
  • No blend-in additive used.

Prevention

  • Check spray booth temperature.
  • Use blend-in additive in accordance with instructions on the Technical Data Sheets.

Remedy

  • Sand clear coat, and respray base coat and clear coat. 

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Halo effect in blending areas

 



Bird droppings
Environmental effects

Definition

  • The damage can range from paint discoloration to the film dissolving completely.
  • Bubbling, swelling and etching are typical phenomena.

Cause

  • The different types of food ingested by birds affect the composition and quantity of droppings.
  • Chemical aggression on the paint surface may be caused by strong organic acids acting for an extended period and exposed to high temperatures.

Remedy

  • Depending on the type of damage, the remedy ranges from polishing to a complete respray. 

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Bird droppings

 


 

Acid rain
Environmental effects

Definition

  • Droplet-like spots with sunken edges or edge zones.

Cause

  • Etching of the paint surface by acid rain.
  • Destruction of the paint film by the sulphurous acid or even sulphuric acid contained in acid rain.

Remedy

  • Repair paint surface by polishing.
  • In the event of severe damage, a respray may be necessary. 

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Acid rain

 



Stone chipping
Environmental effects

Definition

  • Dot-like, angular or crater-like damage to the paint.
  • Tiny impact holes in the paint surface.

Cause

  • Serious mechanical stressing of the paint surface, particularly at the front of the vehicle.
  • Small stones or chippings thrown up at the paintwork by other vehicles.

Remedy

  • Local repair is possible with a brush.
  • If stone chipping is widespread, sand and replace paint system.

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Stone chipping

 


 

Tree sap
Environmental effects

Definition

  • Thread or droplet-like deposits then can etch deep into the paintwork.

Cause

  • Chemical aggression from tree sap and blossom resin.

Remedy

  • Remove tree sap carefully, so as not to damage the top coat.
  • Allow cloths soaked in silicone remover to act for some time, then carefully scrape off the tree sap with a plastic spatula.
  • Polish (if necessary sand and polish).
  • Respray if damage is serious. 

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Tree sap







Bug marks

Environmental effects


Definition

  • Etching of the top coat.
  • Damage can range from loss of gloss to the complete dissolving of the top coat down to the surfacer.

Cause

  • Insect secretions reacting on exposure to moisture and heat.
  • Substances allowed to act for a long time.

Remedy

  • Clean with water or silicone or tar remover.
  • Polish (if necessary sand and polish).
  • If the damage cannot be remedied by polishing, respray. 

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Bug marks





Tar
Environmental effects

Definition

  • Dark or yellow dot-like marks surrounded by a halo of discoloration.

Cause

  • Spots of tar diffusing into the paint film.
  • Made worse by lack of care.

Remedy

  • Immediately remove with tar remover or silicone remover and then polish.
  • If allowed to act for too long, respraying is the only remedy. 

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Tar







Industrial fallout

Environmental effects


Definition

  • Particles of rust locally visible on the top coat.

Cause

  • Chemical destruction of the paint film by the corrosion of individual rust particles on the paint film.

Remedy

  • Depending on the extent of the chemical reaction, polish (or sand and polish).
  • Chemical remedy possible (please contact our Technical Service).
  • Respray in the event of serious damage. 

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Industrial fallout







Splashes of lime or cement

Environmental effects


Definition

  • Matted surfaces with bright, whitish marks.
  • Etched areas on the paint surface.

Cause

  • Chemical destruction of the paint film by splashes of lime or cement.

Remedy

  • Depending on the extent of the damage, polish (or sand and polish).
  • Respray if polishing does not help.

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Splashes of lime or cement







Corrosion

Environmental effects


Definition

  • Mechanical damage with rust beneath the paint film.

Cause

  • Stone chipping in conjunction with de-icing salt and moisture.
  • Penetration of moisture into the damaged paint film.
  • Bare metal exposed to moisture before priming.
  • Inadequate vehicle care.

Prevention

  • Before priming, thoroughly clean and degrease the bare metal.

Remedy

  • Remove rust from areas of corrosion by sand-blasting, with wire brushes or with CSD cleaning discs.
  • If the rust is serious, part replacement may be advisable.
  • Complete new respray. 

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Corrosion







Car wash scratches

Environmental effects


Definition

  • Uniform and almost parallel scuff and scratch marks of varying depth.
  • Dull paint surfaces.

Cause

  • No or insufficient prewash.
  • Washing with too little water.
  • Wash brushes worn or dirty.

Remedy

  • Mechanical polishing.
  • Sealing the paint surface with hard wax.
  • Proper car care. 

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Car wash scratches







Colour fade / change

Environmental effects


Definition

  • White, light-colored, pale surfaces, mostly horizontal.
  • Staining with discolored spots.

Cause

  • Destruction of the paint pigment by UV radiation and weathering.

Remedy

  • Respray.
  • Recommended is a solid-color 2-coat system. 

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Colour fade / change







Plastic film marks

Miscellaneous


Definition

  • Plastic film contact marks are clearly visible.
  • Remains of film adhesive.

Cause

  • Plastic film placed too soon over paintwork that was not completely dry.

Prevention

  • Vapor-diffusing film should be used.
  • Follow the instructions of the plastic film manufacturer.

Remedy

  • Remove remains of adhesive with silicone remover or other mild cleaners.
  • Then polish.
  • If necessary, sand surfaces and respray.

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Plastic film masks







Transport damage

Miscellaneous


Definition

  • Scratch marks of varying depth.

Cause

  • Insufficient protection of factory finish during improper transport.

Prevention

  • Covering the original paintwork (plastic film or protective paint).

Remedy

  • Sand shallow scratches and polish.
  • Deeper scratches require a refinish.

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Transport damage